A 76-year -old man is brought to the primary care office by his wife with concerns about his worsening memory
A 76-year -old man is brought to the primary care office by his wife with concerns about his worsening memory. He is a retired lawyer who has recently been getting lost in the neighborhood where he has lived for 35 years. He was recently found wandering and has often been brought home by neighbors. When asked about this, he becomes angry and defensive and states that he was just trying to go to the store and get some bread. His wife expressed concerns about his ability to make decisions as she came home two days ago to find that he allowed an unknown individual into the home to convince him to buy a home security system which they already have. He has also had trouble dressing himself and balancing his checkbook. At this point, she is considering hiring a day-time caregiver help him with dressing, meals and general supervision why she is at work. Past Medical History: Gastroesophageal reflux (treated with diet); is negative for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, stroke or head injury or depression Allergies: No known allergies Medications: None Family History Father deceased at age 78 of decline related to Alzheimer’s disease Mother deceased at age 80 of natural causes? No siblings Social History Denies smoking Denies alcohol or recreational drug use? Retired lawyer Hobby: Golf at least twice a week Review of Systems Constitutional: Denies fatigue or insomnia HEENT: Denies nasal congestion, rhinorrhea or sore throat.??Chest: Denies dyspnea or coughing Heart: Denies chest pain, chest pressure or palpitations. Lymph: Denies lymph node swelling. Musculoskeletal: denies falls or loss of balance; denies joint point or swelling General Physical Exam?? Constitutional: Alert, angry but cooperative Vital Signs: BP-128/72, T-98.6 F, P-76, RR-20 Wt. 178?lbs., Ht.?6’0″, BMI 24.1 HEENT Head normocephalic; Pupils equal and reactive to light bilaterally; EOM’s intact Neck/Lymph Nodes No abnormalities noted ? Lungs? Bilateral breath sounds clear throughout lung fields. Heart? S1 and S2 regular rate and rhythm, no rubs or murmurs.? Integumentary System? Warm, dry and intact. Nail beds pink without clubbing. ? Neurological Deep tendon reflexes (DTRs): 2/2; muscle tone and strength 5/5; no gait abnormalities; sensation intact bilaterally; no aphasia Diagnostics Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE): Baseline score 12 out of 30 (moderate dementia) MRI: hippocampal atrophy Based on the clinical presentation and diagnostic findings, the patient is diagnosed with Alzheimer’s type dementia. Discussion Questions Compare and contrast the pathophysiology between Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal dementia. Identify the clinical findings from the case that supports a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. ? Explain one hypothesis that explains the development of Alzheimer’s disease Discuss the patient’s likely stage of Alzheimer’s disease.