1. The fact that adipose tissue receives a relatively poor blood supply indicates that adipose tissue:
2. accumulates large amounts of drug.
3. does not accumulate large amounts of drug. Correct
4. does not accumulate lipid-soluble drugs.
5. metabolizes large amounts of drug.
2. A patient is prescribed a drug preparation that contains barbiturates to treat a medical condition. The patient is also being treated with medications for other medical conditions. After a few days of consuming the barbiturate-containing medication, the patient realizes that his other medical conditions have worsened. What is the most likely reason for this occurrence?
1. The barbiturate medication is causing drug overdose.
2. The previous medications are causing enzyme inhibition and blocking the effects of the barbiturate medication.
3. The barbiturate medication is causing enzyme induction. Correct
4. The patient has developed tolerance to both the barbiturate medication and his previous medications.
3. While summarizing the factors that affect IV solutions, it can be concluded that:
1. IV drug solutions must be free of contamination.
2. IV drug solutions must constitute drugs and solutions that are chemically compatible.
3. IV drug solutions must be adjusted to a targeted pH range.
4. all of these are correct. Correct
5. Which of the following is an important inhibitory neurotransmitter that keeps emotion and behavior under control?
2. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) Correct
5. Select the correct number of drops per minute to be administered for a 500-ml Lactated Ringers IV given over 2 hours using an administration set labeled 15 drops per ml.
32. 32.5 drops/min
33. 62.5 drops/min Correct
34. 40 drops/min
35. 75 drops/min
6. The term used to describe the situation that involves multiple drug prescriptions is _____.
2. polypharmacy Correct
3. therapeutic duplication
7. The main cause of Parkinsons disease is the accelerated loss of:
1. cholinergic neurons.
2. dopamine neurons. Correct
3. serotonin neurons.
4. norepinephrine neurons.
8. Explain the key difference between barbiturates and nonbarbiturates.
1. Unlike barbiturates, nonbarbiturates are CNS depressants that contain the barbituric acid ring structure in their chemical makeup.
2. Barbiturates decrease the activity of GABA, and nonbarbiturates increase the activity of GABA.
3. Unlike nonbarbiturates, barbiturates are CNS depressants that contain the barbituric acid ring structure in their chemical makeup. Correct
4. None of the above are correct.
9. Implementing a treatment plan that includes mecamylamine is indicative of a diagnosis of _____.
1. smoking addiction
2. severe hypertension Correct
5. Which of the following is an example of a drug derived from a plant?
2. Digitalis Correct
5. Which part of a persons brain is activated when he or she is choking on a piece of steak?
4. Medulla oblongata Correct
12. A patient education program should include educating patients on the effective administration of drugs. How should patients be instructed to take enteric-coated products?
1. On an empty stomach with water
2. One hour before meals
3. Two hours after meals
4. All of these are correct. Correct
13. William is narcoleptic and his physician prescribes amphetamines to treat his medical condition. After a few months of treatment, Williams medical condition improves and the physician reduces the required dosage of amphetamines. However, the reduced dosage produces unpleasant feelings associated with withdrawal symptoms. William doubles the dosage to counter what he perceives as drug tolerance without consulting his physician and begins consuming more than the recommended dosage regularly. This scenario exemplifies _____.
1. enzyme inhibition
2. drug intolerance
3. drug addiction Correct
4. enzyme induction
14. Drugs that bind to specific receptors and produce a drug action are called _____.
3. agonists Correct
15. Which of the following best explains automatism?
1. Drug-induced hangover effect resulting from benzodiazepine use
2. Drug-induced heightened tolerance resulting from benzodiazepine use
3. Drug-induced confusion that can lead to barbiturate drug overdose Correct
4. None of the above
16. Lack of adequate protein intake in elderly people:
1. leads to a lower concentration of plasma proteins. Correct
2. leads to an increase in the synthesis of drug metabolizing enzymes.
3. leads to an increase in the rate of drug metabolism.
4. leads to a decrease in the intensity of drug action.
17. Patients undergoing a chemical stress test at a doctors office could expect to receive an injection of which neurotransmitter?
1. Epinephrine Correct
5. Analyze the major adrenergic effects of the alpha-adrenergic drug class, and select the main drug effect that the alpha-adrenergic drugs have on the alpha-2 receptors.
1. Negative feedback effect to decrease the release of epinephrine
2. Negative feedback effect to decrease the release of norepinephrine Correct
3. Contraction of smooth muscle
4. Increased blood pressure
19. Identify a consequence of sympathetic stimulation by the use of nicotine products.
1. Heart rate will increase. Correct
2. Blood pressure will decrease.
3. GI activity will decrease.
4. All of these are correct.
20. The phenomenon that occurs upon taking additional doses of acetaminophen for pain when a 100 percent response has been attained is called the _____.
1. ceiling effect Correct
2. placebo effect
3. first-pass effect
4. Purkinje effect
21. Which of the following factors can affect drug metabolism by reducing the efficiency with which organs function?
2. Nutritional deficiency
4. All of these Correct
22. Within which group of commonly abused drugs does cross-tolerance exist?
3. Psychomotor stimulants
4. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) Correct
23. Identify a difference between muscarinic receptors and nicotinic-muscle (Nm) receptors.
1. Muscarinic receptors interact and bind with acetylcholine, whereas Nm receptors interact and bind with dopamine.
2. Muscarinic receptors are located at parasympathetic postganglionic nerve endings, whereas Nm receptors are located at the neuromuscular junction of skeletal muscles. Correct
3. Muscarinic receptors are cholinergic receptors, whereas Nm receptors are adrenergic receptors.
4. Muscarinic receptors are blocked by the same class of drugs that block nicotinic-neural receptors, whereas Nm receptors are blocked by the same class of drugs that block alpha and beta receptors.
24. Compare the effects of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) on norepinephrine and serotonin.
1. MAOIs increase the levels of norepinephrine and serotonin in the brain, and TCAs decrease the levels of norepinephrine and serotonin in the neuronal nerve endings.
2. MAOIs increase the levels of norepinephrine and serotonin in the neuronal nerve endings, and TCAs increase the levels of norepinephrine and serotonin in the brain.
3. Both MAOIs and TCAs increase the levels of norepinephrine and serotonin in the brain. Correct
4. Both MAOIs and TCAs increase the levels of norepinephrine and serotonin in the neuronal nerve endings.
25. Despite the risks of developing serious adverse effects, a drug that is used to treat partial seizures in patients who do not respond to other drugs is _____.
1. gabapentin (Neurontin)
2. topiramate (Topamax)
3. felbamate (Felbatol)
4. valproic acid (Depakene)